The first research work package comprises laboratory work (WP3), which includes single cell sorting, nucleic acid amplification from the minute quantities in a single cell, and highthroughput sequencing. The second is bioinformatics (WP4), by which the billions of short sequences are processed into comprehensive datasets, requiring assembly into larger contigs, gene prediction and annotation, and reconstruction of metabolic pathways. The generated genomic data is then exploited to address scientific questions within two tightly interconnected disciplines, which if tackled separately could not be answered. Fundamental ecological questions (WP5) include the study of the biodiversity of natural samples, cell-to-cell interactions, and gene complements of uncultured lineages that could explain their lifestyle and ecological function. Evolutionary questions (WP6) include the addition of uncultured lineages to retrieve a more complete eukaryotic Tree of Life, understanding the evolution of genes and pathways across different lineages, and population genomics in a given lineage or species group.